New and Emerging Pathogens:
|Identification of New Viral Threats to the Blood Supply
Over the Past Two Decades
|1980||HTLV-1||Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-1||Malignant lymphoproliferative disorders, neuropathy [20, 21]|
|1982||HTLV-2||Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-2|
|1983||HIV-1||Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1||AIDS|
|1986||HIV-2||Human Immunodeficiency Virus-2|
|1986||HDV||Hepatitis Delta Virus||Coinfection or superinfection of HBV |
|1989||HCV||Hepatitis C Virus||Viral hepatitis |
|1990-91||HEV||Hepatitis E Virus||Clinically similar to HAV infection [24, 25]|
|1994-96||HHV-8||Human Herpes Virus-8||Kaposi's sarcoma |
|1995-96||HGV||Hepatitis G Virus (also called GBV-C)||Clinical importance uncertain, but may have role in fulminant hepatitis |
|1997||TTV||New DNA virus named for patient||Clinical importance uncertain |
|1999||SEN-V||New DNA virus||No disease association |
|2002||BDV||Borna disease||Neuropsychiatric disorders |
|2002||WNV||West Nile Virus||Dengue-like illness; encephalitis in severe cases|
|2003||SARS*||SARS virus (coronavirus variant)||Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (atypical pneumonia)|
* A potential new threat to the blood supply. SARS virus has been detected in the blood of patients with
Known pathogens emerging in new geographical areas
West Nile Virus (WNV) provides a notable example of the ability of pathogens to migrate across continents and emerge as threats in new regions. Over the last 40 years, WNV has caused sporadic outbreaks of human disease in Europe. The most recent European outbreak in humans occurred in 1996-7 in Bucharest, Romania, and involved more than 500 recorded cases, with a fatality rate of ~10%. However, since 2002, a new strain of this virus has spread rapidly through the United States, with 12,375 cases of human WNV infection reported by February 18, 2003, and 466 associated deaths . Furthermore, as of April 2003, it had been confirmed that 23 cases of WNV illness had developed in patients as a result of infection from a blood transfusion or organ transplant .
In pursuit of WNV.
Sporadic outbreaks of the virus have occurred throughout central and southern Europe over the last 40 years. Most recently, a prominant outbreak of the virus began in the United States in 1999. Confirmation that WNV could be transmitted through blood was reported in the fall of 2002, and the first blood screening test was made available under an Investigational New Drug (IND) later in the summer of 2003.
Benefits of the INTERCEPT Blood System
The benefits of the INTERCEPT Blood System are particularly attractive with respect to emerging pathogens, for which screening tests might not be immediately available. The unique mechanism of action of this pathogen inactivation system offers the potential to inactivate emerging pathogens before they become a major transfusion risk for patients.
Read our Technical Data Sheets for a list of CE Mark approved product claims.